The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway. The Nobel Prizes are prizes instituted by the will of Alfred Bernhard Nobel. They are awarded to people, and some organizations, which have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. Between 1901 and 2010, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 543 times. A prize may be given to two works if they are both considered worthy of the prize. There are years in which one or more prizes are not awarded, usually because no work was found to be of the required standard stipulated by Alfred Nobel. However, the prizes must be awarded at least once every five years.
During World War II, no prizes were awarded in any category from 1940 through 1942. The prizes were instituted by the final will of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite. Alfred Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one written on November 27, 1895, more than a year before he died. He signed it at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on November 27, 1895. The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind. Although Nobel’s will established the prizes, his plan was incomplete and took five years before the Nobel Foundation could be established and the first prizes were awarded on December 10, 1901. Also known as the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, it was instituted in 1969 by Sveriges Riksbank, the Bank of Sweden. Although it is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences with the official Nobel prizes, it is not paid for by his money, and is technically not a Nobel Prize.
As compared with other prizes, the Nobel Prize nomination and selection process is long and rigorous. This is an important reason why the prizes have grown in importance and prestige over the years to become the most important prizes in their field. Forms, which amount to a personal and exclusive invitation, are sent to about 3,000 selected individuals to invite them to submit nominations for noteworthy candidates. The strictly enforced submission deadline for nominations is January 31. Self-nominations are automatically disqualified and only living persons are eligible for the Nobel Prize. After the nomination deadline, a committee compiles and reduces the number of nominations to a list of 200 preliminary candidates. The list is sent to selected experts in the field of each nominee’s work and the list is further shortened to around 15 final candidates. The committee then writes a report with recommendations and sends it to the academy or other corresponding institution, depending on the category of the prize.
Posthumous nominations for the Prize have been disallowed since 1974. This has sometimes sparked criticism that people deserving of a Nobel Prize did not receive the award because they died before being nominated. In two cases, the prize has been awarded posthumously to people who were nominated when they were still alive. The committees and institutions that serve as selection boards for the prizes typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prizes are awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. Each prize can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year. The prizes constitute a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money. This was originally intended to allow laureates to continue working or researching without the pressures of raising money. In actual fact, many prize winners have retired before winning.
Albert Einstein, though awarded a 1921 Prize, may have deserved 4 total Nobels. As of 2006, the Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 178 times. It is bestowed by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1903, husband and wife Pierre and Marie Curie were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their influential research regarding radiation, a phenomena originally discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. The 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to the first-ever father-son team recognizing Sir William Henry Bragg and his son, Sir William Lawrence Bragg, for their analyses of crystal structure through means of x-rays. In 1921, Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his explanation of the 1905 photoelectric effect. Tesla greatly influenced life in the twentieth and twenty-first century. Edison applied “mass production” to the invention process. In 1915, Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla were mentioned as potential laureates, though it is believed that due to their animosity toward each other that neither was ever given the award despite the enormous scientific contributions of each.
on not winning the nobel prize