To date, four people have won a Nobel Prize twice. Polish scientist who married a French scientist. In late 1891 she left Poland for France. Georg von Békésy was awarded the Nobel Prize only once and that too in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the function of the cochlea in the mammalian hearing organ in 1961. Subscribe today to check out our free Daily Knowledge Youtube video series! The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, identified with the Nobel Prize, is awarded for outstanding contributions in Economics.
After his death in 1896, the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel established the Nobel Prizes. Nobel sought to reward “those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind”. One prize, he stated, should be given “to the person who shall have made the most important ‘discovery’ or ‘invention’ within the field of physics”. No Nobel Prize was established for mathematics and many other scientific and cultural fields. 2008 The 2008 prize was awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien for their work on green fluorescent protein or GFP. This is a central technique in molecular biology which allows for the amplification of specified DNA sequences. 1961 The 1961 prize for carbon assimilation in plants awarded to Melvin Calvin was controversial because it ignored the contributions of Andrew Benson and James Bassham.
Lewis, who was widely known for covalent bond, electron pair, Lewis structure and other seminal contributions, was nominated 41 times for Nobel Prize in Chemistry but never won. Dmitri Mendeleyev, who originated the periodic table of the elements, never received a Nobel Prize. He completed his first periodic table in 1869. The decision to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Fritz Haber in 1918 was, and still remains, controversial because of Haber’s involvement in the development of poison gases for warfare during World War I. Economics was not on Nobel’s original list of prize disciplines. Sweden’s central bank Sveriges Riksbank created the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel in 1969. 2008 The 2008 prize went to economist Paul Krugman “for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”. Krugman was a fierce critic of George W.
1976 The 1976 prize was awarded to Milton Friedman “for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilisation policy”. The Prize in Literature has a history of controversial awards and notorious snubs. Many indisputably major authors have been ignored by the Nobel Committee, possibly for political or extra-literary reasons. Conversely, many writers whom subsequent criticism regarded as minor, inconsequential or transitional have won the prize. From 1901 to 1912, the committee’s work reflected an interpretation of the “ideal direction” stated in Nobel’s will as “a lofty and sound idealism”, which caused Leo Tolstoy, Henrik Ibsen, Émile Zola and Mark Twain to be rejected. Another notable omission for the Prize is R. The heavy focus on European authors, and Swedes in particular, is the subject of mounting criticism, including from major Swedish newspapers. The majority of the laureates have been European.
Swedes have received more prizes than all of Asia. 2010 The 2010 prize awarded to Mario Vargas Llosa stirred controversy, mainly due to his right-wing political views. Vargas Llosa was even dubbed “king of controversies” for focusing more on politics than literature. 2009 The 2009 prize awarded to Herta Müller was criticized because many US literary critics and professors had never heard of Müller before. This reignited criticism that the committee was too Eurocentric. 2005 The 2005 prize went to Harold Pinter “who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”. The award was delayed for some days, apparently due to Knut Ahnlund’s resignation. In turn, this renewed speculation about a “political element” existing in the Swedish Academy’s awarding of the Prize. 2004 The 2004 prize was awarded to Elfriede Jelinek. Academy member Knut Ahnlund, who had been inactive since 1996, resigned, alleging that selecting Jelinek had caused “irreparable damage” to the prize’s reputation.
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