A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. Per Alfred Nobel’s will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of controversies. According to Nobel’s will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year “shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”. Alfred Nobel’s will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. As he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear.
It is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel’s death. The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. The statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nominations must usually be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. 2011, the record was broken once again with 241 nominations. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is then considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute’s Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. The Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. From 1947 to 1989, the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony was held in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, a few hundred metres from Oslo City Hall. Between 1905 and 1946, the ceremony took place at the Norwegian Nobel Institute. It has been expressed that the Peace Prize has been awarded in politically motivated ways for more recent or immediate achievements, or with the intention of encouraging future achievements. In another 2011 Aftenposten opinion article, the grandson of one of Nobel’s two brothers, Michael Nobel, also criticised what he believed to be the politicisation of the award, claiming that the Nobel Committee has not always acted in accordance with Nobel’s will. The awards given to Lê Đức Thọ and Henry Kissinger prompted two dissenting Committee members to resign. The omission of Mahatma Gandhi has been particularly widely discussed, including in public statements by various members of the Nobel Committee.
The Committee has confirmed that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, and, finally, a few days before his assassination in January 1948. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates. As of 2016, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 104 individuals and 23 organizations. Sixteen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize. Nobel Prize amount is raised by SEK 1 million”. Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel”. Peace, They Say: A History of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Most Famous and Controversial Prize in the World. In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress”. Alfred Nobel and the prize that almost didn’t happen. Nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize”.
Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. President Barack Obama wins Nobel Peace Prize”. Nominations for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize”. Nominations for the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize”. The darkly ironic 1939 letter nominating Adolf Hitler for the Nobel Peace Prize”. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. What the Nobel Laureates Receive Archived 30 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012.
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